Trenton Schulz

I am a research scientist at the Norwegian Computing Center (Norsk Regnesentral or NR). I began working at NR in August 2009 after working as a software engineer at Nokia (formerly Trolltech ASA). My research interests include human-robot interaction, e-inclusion, human-computer interaction, open source software, prototyping, security, and software engineering. I have strong research skills in qualitative and quantitative research methods, along with programming skilss in C++, Python, Java, or whatever needs to get the task done.

Like all researchers at NR, I am involved in many projects. Some highlights of current projects include:


Here is a list of my current articles and conference proceedings, ordered by year. Project deliverables, scientific presentation, technical reports, and other writing is not included here.


Halbach, T., Schulz, T., Leister, W., & Solheim, I. (2021). Robot-Enhanced Language Learning for Children in Norwegian Day-Care Centers. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, 5(12), 74. DOI: 10.3390/mti5120074

Herstad, J., Schulz, T. W., & Saplacan, D. (2021). T-able: An Investigation of Habituating Moving Tables at Home. Universal Design 2021: From Special to Mainstream Solutions, 238–251. DOI: 10.3233/SHTI210400

Schulz, T., Soma, R., & Holthaus, P. (2021). Movement acts in breakdown situations: How a robot’s recovery procedure affects participants’ opinions. Paladyn, Journal of Behavioral Robotics, 12(1), 336–355. DOI: 10.1515/pjbr-2021-0027

Simon-Liedtke, J. T., Bong, W. K., Schulz, T., & Fuglerud, K. S. (2021). Remote Evaluation in Universal Design Using Video Conferencing Systems During the COVID-19 Pandemic. In M. Antona & C. Stephanidis (Eds.), Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Design Methods and User Experience (Vol. 12768, pp. 116–135). Springer International Publishing. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-78092-0_8


Schulz, T. (2020). Exploration of Moving Things in the Home [Ph.D., University of Oslo, Department of Informatics]. Available online at DUO

Saplacan, D., Herstad, J., & Schulz, T. W. (2020). Situated Abilities within Universal Design – A Theoretical Exploration. International Journal on Advances in Intelligent Systems, 13(34), 278–291.

Fuglerud, K. S., Schulz, T., Janson, A. L., & Moen, A. (2020). Co-creating Persona Scenarios with Diverse Users Enriching Inclusive Design. In M. Antona & C. Stephanidis (Eds.), Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Design Approaches and Supporting Technologies (Vol. 12188, pp. 48–59). Springer International Publishing. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-49282-3_4

Schulz, T., Halbach, T., & Solheim, I. (2020). Using Social Robots to Teach Language Skills to Immigrant Children in an Oslo City District. Companion of the 2020 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, 442–444. DOI: 10.1145/3371382.3378257.


Bråthen, H., Maartmann-Moe, H., & Schulz, T. (2019). The Role of Physical Prototyping in Participatory Design with Older Adults. ACHI 2019, The Twelfth International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions, 141–146.

Schulz, T., Torresen, J., & Herstad, J. (2019). Animation Techniques in Human-Robot Interaction User Studies: A Systematic Literature Review. ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction, 8(2). DOI: 10.1145/3317325

Schulz, T., Holthaus, P., Amirabdollahian, F., & Koay, K. L. (2019). Humans’ Perception of a Robot Moving Using a Slow in and Slow Out Velocity Profile. 2019 14th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), 594–595. DOI: 10.1109/HRI.2019.8673239

Schulz, T., Holthaus, P., Amirabdollahian, F., Koay, K. L., Torresen, J., & Herstad, J. (2019, October). Differences of Human Perceptions of a Robot Moving using Linear or Slow in, Slow out Velocity Profiles When Performing a Cleaning Task. 2019 28th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN). 2019 28th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN). DOI: 10.1109/RO-MAN46459.2019.8956355


Schulz, T., Herstad, J., & Holone, H. (2018). Privacy at Home: An Inquiry into Sensors and Robots for the Stay at Home Elderly. Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population. Applications in Health, Assistance, and Entertainment, 377–394. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-92037-5_28.

Schulz, T., Herstad, J., & Torresen, J. (2018). Classifying Human and Robot Movement at Home and Implementing Robot Movement Using the Slow In, Slow Out Animation Principle. International Journal on Advances in Intelligent Systems, 11(3 & 4), 234–244.

Schulz, T., & Soma, R. (2018). The Role of Animacy for Communicating Behavior in Robots. NordiCHI ’18 Proceedings of the 10th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 676–680. DOI: 10.1145/3240167.3240246

Soma, R., Dønnem Søyseth, V., Søyland, M., & Schulz, T. (2018). Facilitating Robots at Home: A Framework for Understanding Robot Facilitation. ACHI 2018, The Eleventh International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions, 1–6.

Schulz, T., & Herstad, J. (2018). Walking Away from the Robot: Negotiating Privacy with a Robot. Proceedings of the 31th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI 2017). HCI 2017, Sunderland, UK. DOI: 10.14236/ewic/HCI2017.83


Schulz, T. (2016). Internal Validity in Experiments for Typefaces for People with Dyslexia. In K. Miesenberger, C. Bühler, & P. Penaz (Eds.), Computers Helping People with Special Needs, 15th International Conference, ICCHP 2016, Linz, Austria, July 13-15, 2016, Proceedings, Part II (1st ed., pp. 335–338). Springer International Publishing. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-41267-2_47.

Bai, A., Mork, H. C., Schulz, T., & Skeide Fuglerud, K. (2016). Evaluation of Accessibility Testing Methods. Which Methods Uncover What Type of Problems? Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 506–516. DOI: 10.3233/978-1-61499-684-2-506


Leister, Wolfgang; Tjøstheim, Ingvar; Joryd, Göran Kurt; Schulz, Trenton W.. Towards Assessing Visitor Engagement in Science Centres and Museums. in: PESARO 2015, The Fifth International Conference on Performance, Safety and Robustness in Complex Systems and Applications. International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA) 2015 ISBN 978-1-61208-401-5. pages. 21-27

Schulz, Trenton; Gladhorn, Fredrik; Sæther, Jan Arve. Best Practices for Creating Accessible Mobile Applications. Oslo: Norsk Regnesentral 2015 (ISBN 978-82-539-0541-9) 19 s. Report at the Norwegian Computing Center(1031)

Tjøstheim, Ingvar; Leister, Wolfgang; Larssen, Andreas; Schulz, Trenton W.. The Role of Emotion and Enjoyment for QoE — A Case Study of a Science Centre Installation. In: 2015 Seventh International Workshop on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX) Proceedings. IEEE conference proceedings 2015 ISBN 978-1-4799-8958-4. pages. 1-6

Tomberg, Vladimir; Schulz, Trenton Wade; Kelle, Sebastian. Applying universal design principles to themes for wearables. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2015; Volume 9176. pages. 550-560


Schulz, T., Fuglerud, K. S., Arfwedson, H., & Busch, M. (2014). A Case Study for Universal Design in the Internet of Things. In H. Caltenco, P.-O. Hedvall, A. Larsson, K. Rassmus-Gröhn, & B. Rydeman (Eds.), Universal Design 2014: Three Days of Creativity and Diversity (pp. 45–54). IOS Press. doi:10.3233/978-1-61499-403-9-45

Schulz, T. (2014). Creating Universal Designed and Trustworthy Objects for the Internet of Things. In P. Zaphiris & A. Ioannou (Eds.), Learning and Collaboration Technologies. Technology-Rich Environments for Learning and Collaboration (pp. 206–214). Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-07485-6_21


Halbach, T., & Schulz, T. (2013). MobileSage — A Prototype Based Case Study Delivering Context-Aware, Personalized, On-Demand Help Content. In L. Berntzen & S. Böhm (Eds.), CENTRIC 2013, The Sixth International Conference on Advances in Human oriented and Personalized Mechanisms, Technologies, and Services (pp. 1–6). Venice, Italy: IARIA.

Busch, M., Hochleitner, C., Lorenz, M., Schulz, T., Tscheligi, M., & Wittstock, E. (2013). All In: Targeting Trustworthiness for Special Needs User Groups in the Internet of Things. In M. Huth, N. Asokan, S. Čapkun, I. Flechais, & L. Coles-Kemp (Eds.), Trust and Trustworthy Computing (Vol. 7904, pp. 223–231). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-38908-5_17

Schulz, T., & Tjøstheim, I. (2013). Increasing Trust Perceptions in the Internet of Things. In L. Marinos & I. Askoxylakis (Eds.), Human Aspects of Information Security, Privacy, and Trust (Vol. 8030, pp. 167–175). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-39345-7_18

Dale, O., Solheim, I., Halbach, T., Schulz, T., Spiru, L., & Turcu, I. (2013). What Seniors Want in a Mobile Help-on-Demand Service. In L. Van Gemert-Pijnen & H. C. Ossebaard (Eds.), eTELEMED 2013, The Fifth International Conference on eHealth, Telemedicine, and Social Medicine (pp. 96–101). Nice, France: IARIA.

Dale, O., Schulz, T., Christie, A., & Dagfinrud, H. (2013). Collection of Patient Reported Outcome Measures Using Short Messaging Service. In eTELEMED 2013, The Fifth International Conference on eHealth, Telemedicine, and Social Medicine (pp. 214–219).


Fritsch, L., Groven, A.-K., & Schulz, T. (2012). On the Internet of Things, Trust is Relative. In R. Wichert, K. Laerhoven, & J. Gelissen (Eds.), Constructing Ambient Intelligence (Vol. 277, pp. 267–273). Berlin: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-31479-7_46

Dale, Øystein, & Schulz, Trenton. Easier Mobile Phone Input Using the JusFone Keyboard. In K. Miesenberger, A. Karshmer, P. Penaz, & W. Zagler (Eds.), Computers Helping People with Special Needs (Vol. 7383, pp. 439-446). Linz, Austria: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.

Schulz, Trenton, & Skeide Fuglerud, Kristin. Creating Personas with Disabilities. In K. Miesenberger, A. Karshmer, P. Penaz, & W. Zagler (Eds.), Computers Helping People with Special Needs (Vol. 7383, pp. 145-152). Linz, Austria: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.

Leister, Wolfgang, & Schulz, Trenton. Ideas for a Trust Indicator in the Internet of Things. In W. Leister & P. Dini (Eds.), SMART 2012—The First International Conference on Smart Systems, Devices and Technologies (pp. 31-34). Stuttgart: IARIA.


Schulz, Trenton; Graf, Cornelia; Hochleitner, Christina; Fuglerud, Kristin Skeide. uTRUSTit Deliverable D2.1 Personas. Oslo: Norwegian Computing Center.

Schulz, Trenton; Fritsch, Lothar; Solheim, Ivar; Tjøstheim, Ingvar; Petró, Dániel; Arfwedson, Henrik; Back, Niklas. uTRUSTit Deliverable D2.2 Definition of User Scenarios. Oslo: Norwegian Computing Center.

Fuglerud, Kristin Skeide; Solheim, Ivar; Ellensohn, Lars; Pürzel, Franziska; Schulz, Trenton. uTRUSTit Deliverable D.7.4 Ethics manual. Norwegian Computing Center.

Dale, Ø., Schulz, T., DART. JusFone - A Smartphone for Everyone. Oslo: Norsk Regnesentral 2011 (ISBN 978-82-539-0537-2).

Wolfgang Leister, Trenton Schulz, Arne Lie, Knut Grythe and Ilangko Balasingham. Quality of Service, Adaptation, and Security Provisioning in Wireless Patient Monitoring Systems. Biomedical Engineering, Trends in Electronics, Communications and Software, Anthony N. Laskovski (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-475-7, InTech.


Halbach, T., Fuglerud, K. Skide, Dale, Ø., Solheim, I., and Schulz, T. Usability and Accessibility Evaluation of the Upcoming Norwegian e-vote Solution. In Proceedings of Unitech 2010 (2010), Tapir Academic Publishers, pp. 156–167.

Leister, Wolfgang; Schulz, Trenton. Medical Digital Items for Use in Patient Monitoring Systems. Note DART/13/10.

Schulz, T. Making an Application Accessible on the iPhone 3GS. 26 March 2010.

Schulz, T. & Fuglerud, K. Skeide. Universal Mobile Device (UMD)—Methods, Inventory, and Dissemination. Note DART/2010/01, Norwegian Computing Center, January 2010.


Schulz, T. Evaluating mobile phones with the keystroke-level model and other desktop methods. Master’s thesis, University of Oslo, Department of Informatics, Informatikkbygget, Gaustadalléen 23, N-0371 Oslo, Norway, June 2008.

Schulz, T. Using the Keystroke-Level Model to Evaluate Mobile Phones. In IRIS 31 (2008), IRIS.


Yggdrasil Handout
My handout from the tutorial at Yggdrasil 2011. The topic was Tilgjengelige apps fra design til bruk or how to accessible and usable mobile apps.